In conclusion, the evidence above reveals that moral panic's are not a new phenomena as they have been a tool utilised to negatively construct stigmatised identities in conjunction with media and political rhetoric that shapes public opinion, that justifies the subsequent policies that discursively marginalise such social groups to prevent the normalisation of such 'deviance' that would drain society. Many think it is a strange world that prefers children and young people to be cold and no longer wrap up warm to avoid being demonised or arrested for loitering in charge of a Hoody - an item of clothing. It is dangerous when making parents gamble on their children's lives. Nevertheless, when analysing society in relation to moral panic, it just goes to show that the deregulated press are able to write anything about minority groups in society that demonises, targets, punishes and criminalises discursively according to class, 'race', gender, age, religion and sexuality. Overall it would appear that moral panic is not a new concept; it has been around for centuries with people accepting it as society's aberrant ways. Today we have given it a name, but it does not alter the fact that it is nothing new.
The mounds puzzled early white settlers, who were reluctant to accept that American Indians were their creators. For most of the nineteenth century the question of who built the mounds was debated in the press with more energy than judgement. In the late 1840's Wisconsin scientist Increase Lapham spent several years mapping and investigating effigy mounds for a monograph issued by the Smithsonian Institution. Finally, in 1894, an exhaustive survey proved beyond reasonable doubt that earlier Native Americans were indeed the people who had created the mounds.
Omaima Abou-Bakr, "Islamic Feminism: What's in a Name?," Middle East Women's Studies Review, Winter/Spring, 2001.
Leila Ahmed, Women and Gender in Islam: Roots of a Modern Debate, Yale University press, 1992.
Margot Badran, Feminism, Islam, and Nation: Gender and the Making of Modern Egypt, Princeton University Press.
Herbert Bodman and Nayereh Tohidi, editors, Women in Muslim Societies: Diversity Within Unity, 1998.
Fatma Gocek & Shiva Balaghi, editors, Reconstructing Gender in the Middle East: Tradition, Identity and Power, Columbia University Press, 1995.
Ramsya Harike & Elsa Marston, Women in the Middle East: Tradition and Change, Franklin Watts, 1996. Young Adult.
Institute of Islamic Information and Education Brochure, The Question of Hijab: Suppression or Liberation?
Nikki Keddie, "The Past and Present of Women in the Muslim World," Journal of World History, Spring, 1990.
Nikki Keddie & Jasmine Rostam-Kolayi, editors, "Women and Twentieth-Century Religious Politics," Journal of Women's History, Winter, 1999.
Wadud-Muhsin, Qur'an and Woman, Malaysia, 1992. (Available from Arab World Resources).