In a later work, Ramanadham (1993:2) further depicts privatization as representing marketization of enterprise operations. He sees privatization as having both structural and content angles. The former has three aspects of change in focus- ownership, organizational and operational changes. To achieve privatization of public enterprises, structural change would involve changes in either or all of the three elements. Operationally, privatization would border on rationalization of government controls and restructuring of public enterprises.
The course examines the concepts and applied techniques for cost effective management of both long-term development programs and projects. Project management principles and methodology are provided with special focus on planning, controlling, and coordinating individual and group efforts. Key topics of focus include overview of modern project management, organization strategy and project selection, defining a project and developing a project plan and scheduling resources, project risk analysis, work breakdown structures, and project networks. MS Project will be introduced in this course to provide hands-on practical skills with the above topics. Mastery of key tools and concepts introduced in this course provides a significant competitive advantage in the marketplace. [ 4 cr. ]
The traditional agriculture in Africa is seen as an indigenous agricultural system that has developed over time with cropping patterns based on an agricultural knowledge system expressed in the local language, viewed to be in dynamic equilibrium with the environment, influenced by innovations emerging from within the system as well as those adopted from other indigenous systems and the national and international agricultural systems [ 18 ] . The deliberate maintenance of diversity in domesticated and non-domesticated plants and animals characterizes farming systems across the African continent as well as in most other parts of the world, providing an important opportunity for systematic in situ maintenance of genetic resources [ 19 ] . The informal agricultural research and development systems parallel those of modern agriculture, providing opportunity for national agricultural research and extension services to work with the creative interests and activities of farmers and other indigenous people.